Systemic lupus erythematosus – known more simply as lupus –
is an autoimmune disease, which means that the body’s
immune system malfunctions and attacks the body's own
tissues. Some autoimmune diseases affect just one organ,
but in the case of lupus, all parts of the body can be
As a result, its symptoms vary widely and are often similar
to lots of other conditions, which need to be ruled out before
a diagnosis is made. Lupus therefore, often goes undetected or
misdiagnosed for long-periods of time. Yet early diagnosis is
important to manage the symptoms of lupus, introduce treatment
to reduce the risk of long-term complications of the condition,
and to enable those affected to access wider support, such as
that of local patient groups.
The disease can range from mild to life-threatening and can randomly
become worse (so-called 'flare ups') and then better again, which can
make living with lupus unpredictable and its impact on day-to-day life
Despite several high-profile celebrities sharing their diagnosis of
lupus publicly, awareness of the condition remains low and
misperceptions and stigma continue to affect people living with it.
About this eBook
This eBook has been developed by Idorsia Pharmaceuticals Ltd as a resource to improve understanding of lupus. It provides a useful summary of current information about the disease, the diagnosis procedure, and available treatments. It highlights the impact lupus can have on those living with the condition and those around them. It also outlines the strategies people with lupus disease can use to manage their condition as effectively as possible.
The book is intended for the use of a general audience.
What is lupus?
Lupus is an autoimmune disease, which means that the body’s immune
system malfunctions and attacks the body's own tissues, causing
inflammation and damage.
As this immune response can occur anywhere in the body, any organ
can be affected: most commonly the skin, joints, blood cells and
lungs, as well as the brain, heart and kidneys. It is important
to remember that just because lupus can affect any part of the body,
it doesn’t mean that it will and the number of organs affected and
corresponding symptoms can vary dramatically from person to person.
There are a few different types of lupus, although the most common
one is systemic lupus erythematosus, to which people refer to simply as ‘lupus’.
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is so-called because it affects many different
systems in the body. As it can affect all parts of the body it is usually
considered more serious than the other types.
Cutaneous lupus is a form of lupus that only affects the skin. It causes many types
of rashes and lesions that are typically found on the face, neck, and scalp. The most
common, called a ‘discoid rash’, is raised, red, and scaly, but not itchy. While most
people with cutaneous lupus will never experience symptoms elsewhere, a small minority
of people will go on to develop SLE.
Drug-induced lupus occurs as a side effect of some medications. The lupus-like symptoms
usually disappear once the person stops taking the medication.
Childhood lupus is the name given to SLE in children. Compared to the adult form, childhood
lupus tends to affect certain organs, such as the kidneys, to a greater degree and often
requires more aggressive treatment.
Neonatal lupus is not a true form of lupus as it is caused by antibodies from the mother
acting on the baby in the womb. It typically causes skin rashes that disappear within a
few months, often without the need for any treatment. Some babies with neonatal lupus
can also be born with a serious heart defect, which requires separate treatment.
It is believed that 5 million people worldwide have a form of lupus. Although it affects people of all nationalities,
races, ethnicities, genders, and ages, there are certain groups with a much higher risk of developing the condition.
As much as ninety per cent of diagnosed cases are in women. Lupus particularly affects females during their childbearing
years, with its occurrence increasing after puberty and decreasing after menopause.
Given its genetic disposition, a female first-degree relative (a sister, daughter or mother) of someone with lupus may
be considered six times more likely to develop the disease themselves compared to those with no family history of lupus.
As well as affecting more women, lupus is also more common in people of Afro-Caribbean and Asian origin compared to Caucasians
and is likely to affect these ethnic groups more severely as well.
What causes lupus?
It is not fully understood what causes lupus, but scientists agree that it is likely to be the result of a combination of contributors,
including genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors, which may all play a part in someone developing the condition.
The fact that it is much more common in women than men suggests that the female hormone estrogen may be one part of the cause.
While lupus is not directly ‘inherited’ in the same way as other genetic diseases that are passed from parent to child, the existence of certain genes that run in
some families that affect how the immune system works puts some people at an increased risk of lupus.
Research suggests that some viruses may be linked to the development of lupus. These include the Epstein-Barr Virus
(EBV, which causes mononucleosis or “mono”), herpes zoster virus (which commonly causes shingles),
cytomegalovirus, and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). Further research is needed to understand
how these infections may contribute to the risk of the disease.
Although most causes of lupus are entirely out of an individual’s control, cigarette smoking has been linked to the development
of multiple autoimmune diseases, including lupus. For this reason (and many other health reasons), stopping smoking is advisable.
Signs and symptoms of lupus
Some of the symptoms of lupus are non-specific to the disease and depending on which part of the
body is affected, can be mistaken for other conditions, leading to misdiagnosis.
Some people may experience many different symptoms, some only one. This can also change over time,
with symptoms flaring up and improving for periods of time.
When symptoms worsen, or flare up, this is known as a relapse and can last for a few weeks or sometimes longer.
What is the outlook for people with lupus?
While there is no cure for lupus, treatment is available to manage the symptoms and reduce the risk of more serious complications.
It is hard to predict how lupus will affect each individual. Early diagnosis is important so that patients and their families can access
support as soon as possible and manage the risk of more serious complications affecting vital organs.
How is the immune system involved?
The immune system is incredibly complex; involving many different defense
mechanisms that each work together to protect the body from germs and ‘bad’
cells that might turn into cancer.
Sometimes, as in the case of lupus, something goes wrong in the body and the immune
system starts to attack its own, healthy cells – this is called an autoimmune response.
During this response, the body produces antibodies – substances carried in the blood
to destroy ‘foreign’ threats – which mistakenly attack the body’s own tissues, causing
damage and inflammation. These antibodies remain within the body, leading to further
tissue and organ damage.
How and why lupus affects the immune system’s defense mechanisms is still not fully
understood. However, a combination of genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors
is thought to play a role.
Symptoms of lupus
As any part of the body can be affected by lupus, the condition can manifest itself in a multitude of ways.
Diagnosis and management of lupus
There is no single test for lupus and depending on the individual’s symptoms and circumstances (for example, where they have relatively
isolated and not specific symptoms and where no family history of the condition is known), a diagnosis can be very challenging.
Lupus is often described as ‘the great imitator’ as its symptoms can appear like other diseases, which often have to be ruled
out first before a diagnosis of lupus is made.
For example, someone who goes to their doctor because they are experiencing fatigue and joint pain would likely be considered to
have arthritis and it is only when non-arthritic symptoms start to appear, such as a rash on the face or kidney problems,
that an underlying cause of lupus may be suspected.
An assessment for lupus requires a careful history and physical examination, along with specific
laboratory tests to identify signs that are typical of lupus or that suggest a different
disease altogether. Patients will therefore have a combination of the following tests to
reach a diagnosis of lupus:
Physical examination: to check for signals, such as rashes or arthritis.
Blood test: a number of different blood tests are used to check for blood cells
count, different antibodies and protein levels that may be higher in some forms of lupus.
Urine test: to detect blood or proteins in urine that may indicate signs of kidney problems.
Depending on what symptoms a person is experiencing or which organs a doctor might think are involved, people may also have other tests. Examples include:
X-ray: to examine the inside of the body, mostly bones and joints, although they can be used to detect problems affecting soft tissue, such as internal organs.
Chest scan and echocardiography: to check for an enlarged heart or any other heart or vascular abnormalities.
Ultrasound (or sonogram): a scan that uses high-frequency sound waves to look inside the body.
MRI scan: to detect changes in the brain or other internal organs.
There is no cure for lupus, however most people with lupus are prescribed a combination of different
medications to manage their symptoms, improve their quality of life, and reduce the risk of more serious complications.
The choice of treatment is dependent on the preferences of the person with lupus, which part of their body is affected, and
the severity of the condition at the time. Given the changing nature of lupus, regular monitoring by a rheumatologist
(and often a wider multidisciplinary healthcare team) is needed to review the best treatment course for the individual.
Research into new treatments for lupus itself is ongoing and may lead to new options becoming available for people with lupus in the future.
The main physician for someone with lupus will typically be a rheumatologist, who treats diseases that cause inflammation and swelling.
Depending on other symptoms, a range of healthcare professionals may be involved in the care of patients with lupus, including:
Nephrologists (kidney specialists)
Dermatologists (skin specialists)
Cardiologists (heart specialists)
Hematologists (blood specialists)
Hepatologists (liver specialists)
Gastroenterologists (specialists in digestive disorders)
Neurologists (specialists in the nervous system)
Endocrinologists (hormone specialists)
Pediatricians (specialists in the care of children – if lupus is diagnosed in childhood)
Assessing the severity of lupus
Lupus can range from mild to severe depending on how it affects the body.
Mild: joint and skin problems, tiredness.
Moderate: inflammation of other parts of the skin and body, including the lungs, heart, and kidneys.
Severe: inflammation causing severe damage to the heart, lungs, brain, or kidneys, which can be life threatening.
Burden of lupus
The burden of lupus can differ drastically from person to person, from the actual physical effects of the disease, to the wider emotional and social
impact of the condition on an individual and their loved ones. It is important to know that this is to be expected and there are many forms of support available.
Given the unpredictability of its symptoms and the impact of severe fatigue on productivity, Lupus can impact
a person’s ability to work either full time or at all. Many people benefit from talking about their
condition with their employers who may be able to offer more flexible working arrangements to suit
their changing needs.
While lupus in childhood is uncommon, for those who are affected, the condition can cause problems
with memory and concentration, as well as physical symptoms. Time off for illness and hospital
appointments may also be needed, all of which can affect a child’s performance in school.
During flare ups, students may need to rest or be excused from certain classes, such as physical
education. Making teachers and school staff aware of the condition as an underlying issue is
helpful to make this process as simple as possible.
There is a higher incidence of depression and anxiety in those affected with lupus compared to the general population.
It is thought the uncertainty of a lupus diagnosis, combined with fatigue, pain, and its treatment all contribute.
Seeking professional psychological help can be an important step for overall wellbeing.
Many people struggle with the ‘invisibility’ of the disease. While others who have visible symptoms,
such as marked rashes on the face or weight-gain from steroid treatment, experience self-esteem issues.
While flare-ups can be linked to periods of distress, the unpredictability of the condition, even when symptoms are
not present, plus the impact of disability on work and the family dynamic can all contribute to the long-term
psychological impact of lupus.
Certain hormones may be linked with flare ups of lupus symptoms, so women wanting to take the contraceptive
pill should speak to their doctor about the options that are most appropriate for them.
Pregnancy in women with lupus carries a higher risk for the mother and baby compared with pregnancy in women without
lupus. Women with lupus should talk to their doctor before trying to get pregnant to discuss these risks and
any necessary changes to medication.
Practical guidance on managing lupus
In addition to treatments to manage the symptoms of lupus, there are many things people living with lupus can do to help
control their condition more effectively, from being open with family and friends about what it feels like to live
with lupus and how they can help, to learning more about the condition to take a more active role in its management.
Many of the problems caused by lupus can be made worse by smoking, so giving up smoking is recommended
for anyone living with or at high risk of the condition.
A healthy, well-balanced diet can benefit most people, including those with lupus.
Finding the right balance of exercise for an individual is important to help improve fatigue and overall
health, without causing exertion. Walking and swimming are typically recommended as exercises for people
with lupus because they can improve fatigue, fitness and stamina without putting too much strain on the
Pain and fatigue can be two of the most difficult symptoms of lupus to manage day-to-day and are ‘invisible’
so it’s important to let people around you know how you’re feeling and if they can help in any way.
In addition to pain medication, it can be helpful to:
Avoid certain strenuous activities and plan time to rest before and after more demanding tasks.
Take regular hot showers or baths to ease joint or muscle pain.
Sensitivity to light – or photosensitivity as it is medically known – is a common symptom of lupus and can cause the hallmark rashes or even flare ups.
When outside, people with lupus should wear high-factor sunscreen (factor 50+) to block out damaging ultraviolet (UV) rays. In many countries, sunscreen is
available on prescription for people with lupus.
It is advisable to keep out of the sun when it is most intense, wear a hat, and cover up as much as is comfortable to protect the skin.
Indoor lighting and appliances can also emit harmful UV rays, which can cause cumulative skin damage in people with lupus. Choosing bulbs
and appliances with the lowest irradiance can be helpful to reduce the risk.
If someone with lupus is being treated by medications that dampen their body’s immune response, it may make them more susceptible to infection.
Washing hands often with warm soapy water, carrying and using antibacterial gel, and avoiding individuals who have any contagious conditions
are all simple ways of reducing the risk of infection in day-to-day interactions.
Joining a patient association
There are many patient associations that are dedicated to helping patients and their families to live well with
lupus, through providing detailed information, practical advice, and valuable support.
This resource has been developed by Idorsia Pharmaceuticals Ltd in order to provide an environment to
deliver a better understanding of lupus and to pool information regarding the disease, the diagnosis procedure, available treatments,
and the impact it could have on the life of someone diagnosed with lupus. The resource is for use by a general audience.
The information in this resource is not intended as a substitute for advice/treatment by a physician, whose instructions should
always be followed. Neither does the information provided constitute an alternative to advice from a doctor or a pharmacist
and should not be used on its own to produce a diagnosis or to commence or cease a particular treatment.
The links provided are for informational purposes only; they do not constitute an endorsement or an approval from Idorsia
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